When a bar magnet is broken in the center of its length, two complete bar magnets with magnetic poles on each end of each piece will result. If the magnet is just cracked but not broken completely in two, a north and south pole will form at each edge of the crack. The magnetic field exits the North Pole and reenters at the South Pole. The magnetic field spreads out when it encounters the small air gap created by the crack because the air cannot support as much magnetic field per unit volume as the magnet can. When the field spreads out, it appears to leak out of the material and, thus is called a flux leakage field.
If iron particles are sprinkled on a cracked magnet, the particles will be attracted to and cluster not only at the poles at the ends of the magnet, but also at the poles at the edges of the crack. This cluster of particles is much easier to see than the actual crack and this is the basis for magnetic particle inspection.
Direct current (DC):
Direct current (DC) flows continuously in one direction at a constant voltage. A battery is the most common source of direct current.
Alternating current (AC):
When AC is used to induce a magnetic field in ferromagnetic materials, the magnetic field will be limited to narrow region at the surface of the component. This phenomenon is known as the "skin effect". Therefore, it is recommended that AC be used only when the inspection is limited to surface defects.
Half Wave Rectified Alternating Current (HWAC):
When single phase alternating current is passed through a rectifier, current is allowed to flow in only one direction. The reverse half of each cycle is blocked out so that a one directional, pulsating current is produced.This type of current is often referred to as half wave DC or pulsating DC.HWAC is most often used to power electromagnetic yokes.
A hysteresis loop shows the relationship between the induced magnetic flux density (B) and the magnetizing force (H). It is often referred to as the B-H loop.
Magnetic field orientation :
A longitudinal magnetic field has magnetic lines of force that run parallel to the long axis of the part. Longitudinal magnetization of a component can be accomplished using the longitudinal field set up by a coil or solenoid. It can also be accomplished using permanent magnets or electromagnets.
A circular magnetic field has magnetic lines of force that run circumferentially around the perimeter of a part. A circular magnetic field is induced in an article by either passing current through the component or by passing current through a conductor surrounded by the component.
An orientation of 45 to 90 degrees between the magnetic field and the defect is necessary to form an indication. Since defects may occur in various and unknown directions, each part is normally magnetized in two directions at right angles to each other. If the component below is considered, it is known that passing current through the part from end to end will establish a circular magnetic field that will be 90 degrees to the direction of the current. Therefore, defects that have a significant dimension in the direction of the current (longitudinal defects) should be detectable. Alternately, transverse-type defects will not be detectable with circular magnetization.
After conducting a magnetic particle inspection, it is usually necessary to demagnetize the component. Remanent magnetic fields can:
cause abrasive particles to cling to bearing or faying surfaces and increase wear.
Dry particle :
Dry particle inspection is also used to detect shallow subsurface cracks. Dry particles with half wave DC is the best approach when inspecting for lack of root penetration in welds of thin materials. Half wave DC with prods and dry particles is commonly used when inspecting large castings for hot tears and cracks.
Wet inspection :
Wet inspection is considered best for detecting very small discontinuities on smooth surfaces. On rough surfaces, however, the particles (which are much smaller in wet suspensions) can settle in the surface valleys and lose mobility, rendering them less effective than dry powders under these conditions.